In the last 15 years, the earnings gap between higher education graduates and workers with primary school education or less decreased from 2.73 times to 1.92 times.
In 2022, the average monthly earnings were TRY 12,450 and the average monthly wage was TRY 11,143. In 2006, the wage of a university graduate was 2.7 times that of those with primary school education and below, while this ratio decreased to 1.9 times in 2022.
According to educational attainment, the wage gap between higher education graduates and those with primary school education and below has been closing steadily. It was noteworthy that agricultural workers, one of the most sought-after occupational groups, were among the lowest earners with an average of TRY 8,130 per month.
Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) published the Earnings Structure Statistics for 2022.
According to the statistics released every 4 years, the average income was TRY 12,450 and the average monthly wage was TRY 11,143. An interesting trend emerged in the analysis of income according to educational attainment over the years. While university graduates received 2.7 times the wages of those with primary and lower primary education in 2006, this ratio dropped to 1.9 in 2022. In other words, while those with less than primary education received 36.5 percent of the monthly salary of university graduates in 2010, this ratio increased to 51.9 percent in 2022.
AGRICULTURAL WORKERS’ EARNINGS REMAIN AT THE BOTTOM
In 2022, in the evaluation made according to occupational groups, managers received the highest monthly wage with TRY 24,158, while professionals earned TRY 16,809 and technicians earned TRY 13,035 monthly income. In this category, the lowest wages were observed in unskilled occupations with TRY 8,150 liras, in plant and machine operators with TRY 9,088 liras and in craftsmen with TRY 8,847. In qualified agricultural workers, one of the most sought-after occupational groups in Turkey, it was noteworthy that earnings were not in direct proportion to demand. Those working in this occupational group were among the groups earning the least income, with TRY 8,130.
IT WORKERS EARNED THE MOST
According to economic activities, the highest average monthly salary was in the information and communication sectors with TRY 23,119, followed by finance with TRY 21,325 TL and culture, arts and sports activities with TRY 16,555.
UNIONIZED WORKER EARNS 32 PERCENT MORE
According to the evaluation according to whether they are covered by a collective bargaining agreement or not, unionized workers earned higher than the average wage and higher than non-unionized workers. nionized workers earned an average monthly wage of TRY 14,591 liras, while non-unionized workers earned TRY 11,061 liras. On the other hand, the inequality between women and men in labor force participation also drew attention in the wages earned. According to TurkStat, while men earned an average of TRY 11,233 in 2022, women’s average earnings remained at TRY 10,961. However, it was determined that unionized women earned higher incomes than unionized men. While unionized women earned an average of TRY 15,444, unionized men earned TRY 14,422.
In the analysis by age groups, it was noteworthy that the 35-44 age group received the highest monthly wage with TRY 13,684. The 30-34 age group earned TRY 13,379 and the 45-54 age group earned TRY 13,170. The lowest wage was earned by those under the age of 29 with TRY 10,305.
WAGE INCREASES IN BIG BUSINESS
It was observed that average earnings in larger enterprises also increased. The monthly wage, which was TRY 7,336 in enterprises employing 1-9 people, was TRY 13,432 for those between 50-249 employees and TRY 14,386 for enterprises with 1000 or more employees.
In wages according to years of seniority, the monthly wage of new hires is TRY 9,341, while the average monthly wage of those with 20 or more years of seniority is TRY 18,089 liras. In other words, someone who has been working for 20 years or more earns twice as much as a new employee.